On the Communications Field: Motion Pictures,
Encyclical of Pope
September 8, 1957
To the Venerable Brethren, the Patriarchs, Primates,
Archbishops, Bishops, and other Local Ordinaries in Peace and Communion with
the Apostolic See. Venerable Brethren, Greetings and Apostolic Benediction.
1. Our generation takes great pride in the remarkable products of its
technology, but even though these advances are the result of human talent and
toil, they are still gifts of God, our Creator, from Whom all good works
proceed, "for He has not only brought forth creatures; He also sustains and
fosters what He has brought forth."
2. Some of these discoveries
increase man's strength and capacities; still others affect his intellectual
life and reach the masses of the people either directly or through the agency
of sound and pictures. These very easily transmit news, ideas, or instructions
to those whose minds they nourish during moments of rest or relaxation. Among
advances of this last type, the most notable in our era have been in the
fields of motion pictures, radio, and television.
3. The Church
welcomed these technological advances as soon as they came into use, but in
her maternal concern and watchfulness she was also disposed to guard her
children from every danger as they entered upon this age of progress.
4. This vigilant care derives from the mission which the Church
received from the Divine Redeemer, for these new means of communication
clearly have a great influence on the way individuals and human society as a
whole think and act.
5. But there is another reason why the Church
regards this sort of matter as her particular concern: she has a far greater
right than anyone else to announce the "news" to men. We refer to the tidings
of eternal salvation; tidings of inestimable wealth and power; those tidings
which men of every age and race must accept and embrace, as the Apostle to the
Gentiles said: "Yes, to me, the very least of all saints, there was given this
grace, to announce among the Gentiles the good tidings of the unfathomable
riches of Christ, and to enlighten all men as to what is the dispensation of
the mystery which has been hidden from eternity in God, who created all
6. It is not strange then that those who hold the Church's
highest authority have concerned themselves with this serious subject in order
that they might provide for the eternal salvation of those who were "redeemed
not with perishable things, with silver or gold…, but with the precious blood
of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish." They have examined carefully all
the problems which motion pictures, radio, and television raise for Christians
7. More than twenty years ago Our Predecessor of happy memory,
Pius XI, used "the remarkable invention of Marconi" to send the first radio
broadcast "to all nations and to every creature."
8. A few years
later Our Predecessor sent that great Encyclical Epistle which opens with the
words Vigilanti cura to Our Venerable Brethren, the Archbishops and Bishops
of the United States of America. In that Encyclical he laid down wise
regulations regarding motion-picture shows and, among other statements
pertinent to present problems, said: "It is urgently necessary that all
progress made, by God's favor, in human learning and technology actually
contribute to God's glory, the salvation of souls, and the spread of the
Kingdom of Jesus Christ, in such wise that we may all, as the Church bids us
pray, 'so pass through the things of time that we may not lose those things
that are eternal."
9. We Ourselves, throughout Our Supreme
Pontificate, have often, as opportunities arose, discussed this subject and
given appropriate instructions not only to the Bishops but also to various
organizations within Catholic Action and to Christian educators. It has also
been Our pleasure to receive in audience those professionally engaged in
motion pictures, radio, and television. After expressing to them Our wonder at
the marvelous progress made by specialists in these fields, We have pointed
out the duties incumbent upon each of them, the high praise they already
deserve, the pitfalls into which they can easily fall, and the high ideals
which should enlighten their minds and direct their wills.
10. We have
also, as you know, established a special commission in the Roman Curia and
entrusted it with the careful consideration of the various problems arising
from motion pictures, radio, and television which relate to Christian faith
and morals. Bishops and other interested parties may obtain suitable
directives from this commission.
11. We often use these wonderful
modern means by which We can unite the world-wide-flock with its Supreme
Pastor. Our words fly surely and safely over land and sea, and even over the
turbulent tides of human souls, to move the hearts of men and exercise a
saving influence on them, as is demanded by this supreme apostolate which has
been entrusted to Us, and which has today grown to immense proportions.
12. We are deeply comforted by the knowledge that Our exhortations on
this subject, and those of Our Predecessor, Pius XI, have had great influence
in making motion pictures, radio, and television tend to summon men to pursue
their spiritual perfection, and thus to promote God's glory.
with your zealous and watchful attention, Venerable Brethren, projects have
been conceived and undertaken which have not only promoted this form of the
apostolate in individual dioceses and countries, but have even spread it,
through united effort and under a single program, to all mankind.
Many men, both Catholic and non-Catholic, from government, business, and the
professions, have taken an interest in these forms of entertainment and
demonstrated their integrity in this serious matter by the efforts they have
made, with great personal labor and expense, to avert occasions of evil, make
sacrosanct the commandments of God, and place the dignity of the human person
15. But, unfortunately, We must repeat the words of the
Apostle to the Gentiles: "All do not obey the gospel." For in this matter
many neither understand nor acknowledge the teaching authority of the Church;
they may even oppose it with all their resources. Others, as you know, are so
gripped by an unrestrained craving for profit, or so blinded by errors, that
they do not put the dignity and the liberty of human nature on the same plane.
And, finally, there are those who adhere to incorrect philosophies of art.
16. However much their conduct fills Our heart with sorrow, yet how
can We fail in Our duty and turn from the straight road and still be sure that
those words will be applied to us that His enemies addressed to the Divine
"We know that thou art truthful and that thou teachest the
way of God in truth, and that thou carest naught for any man."
The remarkable progress made by modern technology in the fields of motion
pictures, radio, and television have given rise to great benefits, and to just
as great dangers. For these new means of communication are within the reach of
almost everyone, and thus exercise a powerful influence over men's minds. They
can enlighten, ennoble, and adorn men's minds, but they can also disfigure
them with dark shadows, disgrace them with perversity, and expose them to
unrestrained passions, according as the shows they offer present our senses
with objects that are proper or improper.
18. During the past
century the technological progress made by industry has often had this result,
that the machines which were intended to serve man have actually reduced him
to serfdom, to his great loss. And so today the mounting technological
advances in communicating pictures, sounds, and ideas must be subjected to the
sweet yoke of the law of Christ if they are not to become a source of
countless evils which will be all the more serious in that they will enslave
not only the powers of nature but also those of the soul. In this event, man's
inventions would be stripped of that beneficent usefulness which, in God's
provident design, is their primary purpose.
19. And so, as We
ponder this serious matter with a fatherly concern that grows deeper from day
to day, and reflect upon the good results that the Encyclical Vigilanti cura
has produced in the field of motion pictures during the past twenty years, We
have resolved, in response to the entreaties of bishops and laymen engaged in
these fields, to set down norms and instructions pertaining also to radio and
20. We have, therefore, addressed Our earnest prayers to
God, and sought the assistance of His Virgin Mother, and now address you,
Venerable Brethren, whose wise pastoral concern is well known to Us, in order
that Christian teachings on this subject might be clarified, and appropriate
measures proposed and undertaken. With all the means at Our command, then, We
wish to exhort you to guard the flock entrusted to you from every error and
danger which the use of these media can raise against the conduct of Christian
life to its serious detriment.
21. Before treating specific problems
concerning motion pictures, radio and television (for We realize that in
artistic, technical, and economic matters each has its own peculiar problems
which require solution if it is to improve intellectual and spiritual life),
We think it best to outline briefly principles pertaining to the widest
possible enjoyment of these benefits meant for the whole human community and
for individual citizens.
22. Since God is the Supreme Good, He
continually bestows His gifts upon men, the objects of His special love and
care. Some of these gifts look to the spirit; others to the conduct of earthly
life. These latter gifts are clearly subject to the former, in much the same
way that the body should be subject to the soul with which, before He
communicates Himself by the beatific vision, God is joined by that faith and
love which "is poured forth in our hearts by the Holy Spirit who has been
given to us."
23. Furthermore, since God desires to see the image
of His own perfection reflected in man, He has chosen him to partake in
His divine generosity, and associated him in His works as a bearer of the good
tidings, that he might be a liberal dispenser of them to the rest of his
brethren and to the entire human community. For from earliest times man has
been wont, by his very nature, to communicate his spiritual goods by symbols
which he wrests from bodily things and which he attempts constantly to reduce
to a more perfect form. From the art and letters of antiquity down to the
technology of our day all the means by which men are united with one another
have tended to this high end, that in this task men might in some way be
ministers of God.
24. That this purpose of Divine Providence might be
more surely and efficaciously realized among men, by Our Apostolic
Authority We constituted "Saint Gabriel, the Archangel who brought the
longed for news of the Redemption to the human race, … heavenly patron before
God" of those means whereby men are able by means of electricity to transmit
words to others who are at a distance: to converse with them from afar, to
send information over the air waves, or to view objects and events through
images brought directly before their eyes. In choosing this heavenly
patron it was Our intention that all who use these beneficial instruments, by
which the inestimable treasures of God may be spread among men like the good
seed which bears fruit of truth and goodness, might have their attention
focused on the nobility of the work entrusted to them.
25. As we
consider the high purposes for which these noble means of communication are
meant, this question presents itself: Why is it that they occasionally become
the instruments of evil, or the paths which lead to it? "How then does it have
26. Of course, nothing evil, since it is opposed to sound
moral principles, can come from God, Who is perfect and absolute Good, or from
those means of communication which are His precious gifts, but only from the
fact that men, endowed with free will, can abuse these gifts by committing and
spreading evil and by allying themselves with the prince of darkness, the
enemy of God: "An enemy has done this."
27. True human liberty,
then, requires that we utilize and share with others all those resources which
can contribute to virtue and to the perfection of our nature.
the Church, since she teaches the doctrine of salvation and has all that is
needed for the attainment of holiness, has an inviolable right to communicate
that which has been entrusted to her by divine command. This sacred right
should be acknowledged by public authorities, so that the Church might have
access to those means by which she can spread truth and virtue. Sincere and
zealous sons of the Church, who recognize the inestimable gift of the
Redemption, must exert every effort in seeing that she has the use of these
technical advances to the extent that they can contribute to the
sanctification of souls.
29. In claiming and championing these rights
for the Church, we do not mean to deny to civil society the use of these same
media for the spread of information and instructions, when these are genuinely
necessary or useful for the common good of the human family.
when circumstances call for it, and those principles on which the common good
rests are safeguarded, individual citizens should be permitted to contribute,
according to their abilities, to the enrichment of their own and others'
intellectual and spiritual life by the use of these means of communication.
31. But altogether contrary to Christian teaching and the primary end
of these media is the purpose and intent of those who would use these
inventions solely to advance and advertise political matters or to further
their economic purposes, and thus treat this noble cause as if it were solely
a business venture.
32. So too, We cannot approve the stand of those
who claim and defend their freedom to depict and display whatever they please,
despite the perfectly evident fact that great harm has come to souls in days
past as a result of this attitude. For here the issue is not real freedom,
which We have discussed above, but unchecked license to express oneself
without regard for prudence, even though this be contrary to sound morals and
liable to result in serious danger for souls.
33. The Church
encourages and fosters all that really assists in the enrichment of the mind
(she is, after all, the patron and support of humane studies and liberal
arts), but she cannot tolerate a breach of these rules and norms which direct
and guide man to God, his final end. It is not surprising, then, that in a
matter requiring such great caution she acts carefully and discreetly, in
accordance with the Apostle's instruction: "But test all things; hold fast
that which is good. Keep yourselves from every kind of evil."
Wherefore they are certainly to be reproved who assert that the publication of
matters which impede or are opposed to the principles of morality should be
approved if they conform to technical and artistic norms. In a short address
on the fifth centenary of the death of Fra Angelico We said: "Of themselves
the liberal arts certainly do not demand direction to a moral or religious
function. But if artistic expression, in words, sounds, or images, is equated
with false, empty, and confused techniques which are out of harmony with the
plan of the Divine Creator; if instead of raising the mind and heart to lofty
sentiments it moves them rather to base passions and desires, then it can
attract men by it novelty, which does not always have value or virtue, or by
its slight content of truth (for truth is present in every being), but such
art will have abandoned its position of honor, strayed far from its first and
necessary principle, and so be neither universal nor perennial, as is the
human spirit to which it speaks."
35. Public authorities are
bound, beyond all doubt, to oversee carefully these new means of
communication. They should look on this matter not from a political point of
view alone, but from that of public morals, whose sure foundation rests on the
natural law. Which, as inspired words attest, is written in our hearts.
36. This vigilant attention of civil authorities cannot be regarded as
an unjust restriction on civil liberty, since it is not directed to private
persons, but to the whole of human society, by whom these means of
communication are shared.
37. "We are aware." We said on another
occasion, "that public opinion is opposed today to intervention by public
authority and would prefer regulation in this field that came from the
community itself." But rules and safeguards issuing from persons
professionally engaged in these fields should not be set up in opposition to
the serious duty of public authority, although they may support its measures
and avert evils that can easily damage sound morals.
38. For this
reason Our immediate Predecessor and We Ourselves have been pleased to praise
all who, in compliance with the office entrusted to them, have laid down
suitable safeguards and rules which do not prejudice the competency of civil
authority. For We believe that these modern means of communication can make
their contribution to the sound intellectual development of those who use them
only if the Church, the state, and those professionally employed in them pool
their resources in an organized way and cooperate with one another in
achieving the desired goal. If the opposite occurs, if these arts, without
fixed laws or moral safeguards, set out on a headlong and unimpeded course,
they will certainly become a threat to real culture and a menace to sound
39. Among the various means by which man's ideas are diffused,
those occupy a unique position today, as We have said, which transmit
information of all kinds to both eyes and ears, by both sound and sight.
40. So far as concerns spiritual things, this manner of transmitting
pictures and sounds is supremely adapted to human nature, for as Aquinas said,
"Now it is natural to man to attain to intellectual truths through sensible
objects, because all our knowledge originates with the senses." And indeed
the faculty of sight, since it is nobler and more honorable than the other
senses, leads men more easily to knowledge of spiritual things.
41. And so the three principal means of transmitting sounds and
pictures over a distance—motion pictures, radio, and television—are not only
means of recreation and relaxation, though many listeners and viewers ask
nothing more; they are also capable of furthering man's intellectual
development and growth in virtue and can make a major contribution to the
proper education and development of civil society in our times.
is far easier for these means of communication than for printed books to bring
men into contact with one another and to unite their efforts. And since this
affects the growth of the civilization of all peoples, the Church, embracing
the whole human family because of the mandate given her, desires to turn these
media to the spread and advance of genuine goods.
43. Indeed, this
should be the primary aim of motion pictures, radio, and television: to serve
truth and virtue.
44. They should serve the spread of truth so that
the bonds between peoples will be made closer, so that men will have better
mutual understanding and will assist one another in time of crisis, and,
finally so that there will be genuine cooperation between public authority and
45. To serve truth means more than simply to
refrain entirely from falsehood, lies, and deceit; it means shunning
everything that can encourage a way of life and action that is false,
imperfect, or harmful to others.
46. But above all let the truths that
have been given us by God's revelation be held sacred and inviolable. Rather,
these noble means of communication should be directed particularly to this
end: that they might spread the teachings of God and of His Son, Jesus Christ,
"and instill into the minds of men that Christian truth which alone can
provide men with the strength from above which will enable them, with calmness
and courage, to overcome the perils of this present age, and to endure its
47. But it is not enough that these new inventions serve
truth; they must also perfect human life and morals. They can contribute to
this end in three ways which We intend to discuss: by announcing the news; by
educating; by entertaining.
48. News of any event, even if it tells
nothing but the bare facts, has a unique aspect which somehow concerns
morality. "This aspect which affects human morals must never be overlooked;
for all news evokes a judgment of the intellect and influences the will. The
newsman who worthily fulfills his task should embarrass no one by his words,
but should try to understand and explain misfortunes and misdeeds as best he
can. To explain is not to excuse; it is, rather, to suggest the basis of a
remedy, and thus to do something positive and constructive."
What We have just written certainly has greater importance when applied to
education. Educational films, radio broadcasts, and television shows assist in
educating adults as well as the young. But every precaution must be taken to
see that these instructions are not contrary to the Church's teachings, and
that they neither impede nor oppose the duty of educating children within the
50. So too it is to be hoped that these new channels of
communication, whether sponsored by private citizens or supported by the
state, will not attempt to teach without mention of God's name or reference to
His divine law.
51. But, alas, We are aware that in the countries
controlled by atheistic communism radio and television are used by educators
to eradicate all religious ideas from the mind. Anyone who considers this
problem calmly and without prejudice cannot help but see that the consciences
of children and young people deprived of divine truth, are being enslaved by a
new and subtle technique (for they cannot learn that divinely revealed truth
which, as our Redeemer said, makes us free,) and that by this ingenious
device a novel attack is being made upon religion.
52. But We
earnestly desire, Venerable Brethren, that these means of easily and
pleasantly drawing the eyes and ears to distant events should be employed to
form men in a fuller intellectual culture, in the knowledge necessary for
fulfilling their particular duties, and "in those Christian principles, above
all, whose neglect makes true human progress impossible."
desire, then, to pay tribute to all those teachers and educators who have used
motion pictures, radio broadcasts, or television shows to achieve this most
54. It must also be pointed out that, besides
publishing news and imparting instruction, these new means of communication
can even contribute greatly to man's true good. For very frequently shows have
this characteristic to some extent, that they are meant not only to amuse and
inform the audience but also to train their minds. Thus Our Predecessor of
happy memory, Pius XI, rightly and properly called motion picture theaters
"schools." For they can be called schools in this sense, that dramatic
action is presented in scenes in which vivid pictures created by moving light
are synchronized with voices and music in a fascinating way, so that they
reach not simply the intelligence and other faculties, but the whole man,
unite him to themselves, and almost force him to take part in the plot.
55. Although motion pictures, radio, and television embrace various
types of shows that have long been in use, each contributes something new, and
thus produces a different sort of show that is not directed to a few select
spectators, but to vast numbers of men who differ in age, in walk of life, and
in degree of culture.
56. In order, then, that these shows might be
able to pursue their proper end under such conditions, it is important that
the minds and hearts of the spectators be properly formed and educated, so
that they will not only understand the artistic forms of each of these media,
but will also be guided by a correct conscience in appraising them. Thus they
will be able to weigh and judge with maturity what they see on a
motion-picture or television screen or hear over the radio, and will not—as
has often happened—be inordinately allured by their force and fascination.
57. In the absence of this training and information, enlightened by
Christian teaching, neither legitimate pleasures (which "everyone admits are
necessary for all who are involved in the business and the cares of life")
nor the advance of culture can be kept safe.
58. With commendable
wisdom, Catholics have appreciated, especially in recent years, the need to
educate spectators. Several programs have been undertaken which aim at making
both youths and adults willing to examine more adequately and more competently
the benefits and the dangers of these shows, and to assess them more
carefully. This, however, should not provide them with an excuse for attending
shows which are contrary to right morals; it should, rather, lead them to
select and attend only those which are in accord with the Church's teachings
on religious and moral principles, and in harmony with the instructions issued
by the ecclesiastical offices established for these matters.
these programs, in accordance with Our hopes, are in conformity with sound
pedagogical principles and right rules of mental development, We not only give
them Our approval, but also heartily commend them, and thus We desire them to
be introduced into schools of every level, Catholic Action groups, and parish
60. Sound formation and education of spectators will ensure
a lessening of those dangers which can threaten harm to morals; they will also
permit Christians, through the new knowledge they acquire, to raise their
minds to the contemplation of heavenly truths.
61. We wish to praise
particularly those preachers of the divine word who, aware of their duty to
preserve in their integrity the morals of those to whom they minister and whom
they lead along the path of truth, make good use of the means provided by
motion pictures, radio, and television to this end, and thus share with their
flock the genuinely salutary benefits and inventions which our times have
introduced. We therefore desire that those who wield authority, either in
Church or state, should support in a special way the activity and enterprise
of these preachers.
62. Yet it must be noticed that, in exercising
control in this area, the sound training and education of spectators, of which
We have spoken, is not in itself sufficient. Each of the shows must be suited
and adapted to the intelligence of each age-group, the strength of their
emotional and imaginative response, and the condition of their morals.
63. This, indeed, assumes a very great importance because radio and
television shows, since they easily penetrate into the domestic circle,
threaten to undermine the protective barriers by which the education of the
young must be kept safe and sound until such time as advancing age gives the
strength necessary to enable them to overcome the buffeting of the world.
64. For this reason, three years ago We wrote to the bishops of Italy:
"Should we not shudder when we reflect attentively that through television
shows all can inhale, even within the home, the poisoned air of those
'materialistic' doctrines which diffuse empty pleasures and desires of all
kinds, just as was done over and over again in motion-picture theaters?"
65. We are aware that public authorities and private groups engaged in
the education of youth have introduced programs and plans by which they make
every possible effort to keep young people from shows unsuited to their age,
which they too often attend to their serious harm.
66. We heartily
approve whatever is being done in this praiseworthy cause. Yet it must be
noted that, even more than the physiological and psychological disturbances
which can arise there from, those dangers must be guarded against which affect
the morals of youth, and which, unless prevented and forbidden in due season,
can greatly contribute to the damage and ruin of human society itself.
67. Concerning this matter We make a father's appeal to Our dear
young, trusting that—since We speak of entertainment in which their innocence
can be exposed to danger—they will be outstanding for their Christian
restraint and prudence. They have a grave obligation to check and control that
natural and unrestrained eagerness to see and hear everything, and they must
keep their minds free from immodest and earthly pleasures and direct them to
68. The Church knows well that from these new means of
communication there arise many benefits and many evils and dangers, depending
upon the use men make of them. And so in this matter also she desires to
perform her duty, since it directly concerns not only culture in general, but
also religion most especially, and the orientation and guidance of morals.
69. To carry out this duty more efficiently and easily, Our
Predecessor of immortal memory, Pius XI, declared and proclaimed: "It is
absolutely necessary that the bishops set up a permanent national office of
supervision to encourage decent films, to give others a recognized
classification, and then to publish their judgment and make it known to
priests and faithful." It was also necessary, he added, that all the
undertakings of Catholics with regard to motion pictures be directed to a
70. In several countries, the bishops kept these
directives before their eyes and set up offices of this kind not only for
motion pictures, but also for radio and television.
71. As We
consider, then, the spiritual advantages which can spring from these means of
communication and the need to protect the integrity of Christian morals which
such entertainments can easily endanger, We desire that, in every country, if
the offices referred to do not already exist, they be established without
delay. These are to be entrusted to men skilled in these fields, with a
priest, chosen by the bishops, as their adviser. Moreover, Venerable Brethren,
we urge that in each country, these offices dealing with motion pictures,
radio, or television should depend on one and the same committee, or at least
act in close cooperation.
72. We also urge the faithful, particularly
those who are active members of Catholic Action, to be suitably instructed so
that they may perceive the need to give willingly to these offices their
united and effective support.
73. And since there are a number of
questions on this subject not capable of easy explanation and solution in
individual countries, it will certainly be very useful if the national offices
of each country unite in an international association to which this Holy See,
after due consideration, will be able to give approval.
74. We have no
doubt, Venerable Brethren, that profitable and salutary results will issue
from what you do, at some cost in toil and inconvenience, to obey these
directives, but the result will be more easily and aptly attained if the
particular rules which We are going to set forth in the course of this
Encyclical with regard to motion pictures, radio, and television are carefully
put into practice.
75. Motion pictures came into existence about sixty
years ago and must be included today among the most important means for making
known the ideas and innovations of our age. We have already spoken about their
various processes and their power of attraction. Out of this
growth—particularly in the case of films vividly telling a story through sound
and picture—there has arisen a great industry which unites the activities of
craftsmen, laborers, and technicians to those of financial groups. For
individuals cannot easily carry out such extensive and complex operations.
76. And so, in order that motion pictures may remain worthy
instruments to guide men to salvation, raise them to higher things, and really
improve them, it is absolutely necessary for each of the groups just named
to exercise a real sense of responsibility and to cooperate readily with one
another in producing and distributing films that can merit approval.
77. To all those who give careful attention to motion-picture shows,
We have made clear more than once the seriousness of the subject and exhorted
them to produce, in particular, the sort of ideal film that can contribute in
some way to sound education.
78. You should take a special
interest, Venerable Brethren, in seeing that individual national offices, set
up under your authority (about which We have written above), impart to the
various classes of interested citizens information about the films they may
attend—advice and directives by which this excellent art, which can contribute
so much to the good of souls, may be advanced as far as possible.
To accomplish this, "tables or lists should be compiled and published in a
definite arrangement, in which films distributed will be listed, as frequently
as possible, so as to come to the attention of all." This should be done
by a committee of reliable men, which will depend on each of your national
offices. These men must, of course, be eminent for their learning and
practical prudence, since they must judge films according to the norms of
80. We earnestly exhort the members of such
committees to devote to these topics, in a suitable manner, deep and prolonged
study and devout prayer, for they must deal with a very important matter that
is closely bound up with the Christian way of life, and thus must have a sound
insight into the influence motion pictures exert in varying ways according to
the circumstances of the spectators.
81. Whenever they pass moral
judgment on a film, they should reflect attentively on the norms We have often
laid down, particularly when We have spoken about the elevation of motion
pictures to the highest ideal of beauty and education, about plots which deal
with religion, and about portrayal of evil deeds (which portrayal should never
neglect and never offend human dignity, the modesty of the home, holiness of
life, the Church of Jesus Christ, or human and civil society)
Moreover, they should remember that the task entrusted to them of passing
moral judgment on motion pictures is meant to give clear and apt guidance to
public opinion in order that all might be led to esteem those norms and
principles of morality without which sound intellectual development and
culture worth the name become impossible.
83. It is unquestionably
necessary, then, to repudiate the behavior of those who, from excessive
indulgence, tolerate films which, for all their technical excellence, offend
right morals, or which, though they seem on the surface to conform to the
principles of morality, contain something contrary to Catholic belief.
84. But if clear and public notice has been given of the films that
can be seen by all, young or adult; those that could be an occasion of moral
danger to the spectators; and, finally, those that are entirely bad and
harmful, then all will be able to attend only those motion pictures from which
"they will come out with minds happier, freer, and better," and will avoid
those that can harm them—and they will have the added motive that they will
not have contributed to the profits of traffickers in evil or given bad
example to others.
85. Repeating the timely instructions that Our
Predecessor of happy memory, Pius XI, gave in his Encyclical Vigilanti
cura, We earnestly desire that Christians be not only carefully warned on
this subject as often as possible, but that they personally fulfill the grave
obligation of acquainting themselves with and faithfully obeying the decisions
handed down by ecclesiastical authorities on matters concerning motion
86. On this subject, if they deem it appropriate, the
bishops may set aside a special day each year on which the faithful will be
carefully instructed on their duties regarding motion pictures and urged to
offer earnest prayers to God on this matter.
87. That all might become
familiar with these decisions and follow them, these directives, with a brief
explanation, should be published at suitable times and given the widest
88. In this area Catholic motion picture
critics can exert a great deal of influence if they set moral issues in their
proper perspective by championing those principles which will prevent a
decline into what is called "relative morality," or an overthrow of that right
order of things in which less important issues are subordinated to more
89. It is quite wrong, then, for Catholic magazines
and newspapers not to give their readers a moral appraisal of the motion
pictures that they review.
90. There is a duty binding the consciences
of the spectators who, every time they buy a ticket, cast a vote for good or
bad motion pictures. But an even greater duty binds those who manage movie
theaters or distribute films.
91. We are well aware of the great
problems which today confront the motion-picture industry for many reasons,
among which is the great growth of television. Yet even in the face of these
difficulties, they must remember that they are forbidden in conscience to
present motion pictures that are contrary to faith and sound morals, or to
enter into contracts by which they are forced to present shows of this kind.
92. In many countries those engaged in the industry have bound
themselves not to exhibit, for any consideration, motion pictures that might
prove harmful or evil. We trust that this excellent program will spread to all
parts of the world, and that no Catholic in motion-picture management will
hesitate to follow such sane and salutary proposals.
93. We must also
warn vigorously against the display of commercial posters which ensnare or
give scandal even though, as sometimes happens, the films which they publicize
are irreproachable. "Who can estimate the harm such advertisements have done
to souls, especially of the young, the number of base and impure feelings they
have aroused, the extent to which they have contributed to the corruption of
public morals, with serious prejudice to the well-being of the state
94. As a consequence in motion-picture theaters conducted
under church auspices, where shows are provided for the faithful, particularly
for the young, that are truly educational and in keeping with the
surroundings, it is apparent that only those films may be shown which are
entirely beyond reproach.
95. Bishops should keep a watchful eye on
such public theaters, including those of exempt Religious. They should warn
all of the clergy on whom responsibility for them falls that, if they wish to
take part in this ministry which the Holy See considers of the highest
importance, they must observe faithfully and exactly the rules laid down for
these theaters, and not be too much taken up with their personal advantage. We
especially advise those who control these Catholic theaters to group
themselves together—as, with Our full approval and consent, has been done in a
number of places—in order effectively to put into practice the recommendations
of the respective national offices, and to support their common advantages and
96. The advice We have given to theater managers We wish to
apply also to distributors who, since they sometimes contribute financially to
the production of films, obviously have a greater influence and, consequently,
are bound by a more serious duty to support reputable films.
distribution cannot, in any sense, be regarded as a mere technical function of
business since films, as We have often stated, are not simply articles for
sale, but also—and this is far more important—food for the mind and, as it
were, a means of spiritual and moral training for the public.
98. As a
result, those who release and those who distribute films share to the same
degree the praise or blame for the good or evil that results from their
99. Since the matter under consideration is that the
motion-picture industry conform to higher standards, then there is also a
weighty obligation in conscience resting on the actors. They should remember
their dignity as human beings and experienced artists, and realize that they
may not lend their talents to parts in plays, or be connected with the making
of films, which are contrary to sound morals.
100. But an actor who
has won great fame for his talent and skill, should use that just renown in
such a way that he inspires the mind of the public with noble sentiments. In
particular, he should remember to give others a notable example of virtue by
his private life.
101. When addressing professional actors on one
occasion in the past, We said: "Everyone can see that in the presence of a
throng of people listening open-mouthed to your words applauding and shouting,
your own hearts are stirred and filled with a certain joy and exaltation."
102. But even if it be conceded that one is fully justified in feeling
these emotions yet it does not follow that Christian actors may accept from
their audience expressions of praise which savor of idolatry, since, in this
case also, our Savior's words apply: "So let your light shine before men that
they may see your good works, and glorify your Father who is in heaven."
103. But the heaviest responsibility falls on the authors and
producers, though for a different reason. Awareness of this burden does not
impede worthwhile undertakings, but ought rather to strengthen the minds of
those who are endowed with good will and are influential in the production of
films by reason of their financial position or natural talent.
Oftentimes also authors and producers of motion pictures meet serious
difficulties when the circumstances and demands of their art come into
conflict with the precepts of religion and the moral law. In that case, before
a film is printed, or while it is being produced, some competent advice should
be sought and a sound policy adopted to provide for the spiritual good of the
spectators and the perfection of the work itself.
105. These men
should not hesitate to consult the local Catholic motion-picture office, which
will be readily accessible and which, if it should be necessary, will, with
the proper prudence, delegate a qualified ecclesiastical adviser to look after
106. The result of this confidence which they place in the
Church will not be a lessening of their authority or popularity; "for the
Faith, until the need of time, will be the bulwark of the human person,"
and by the production of such motion pictures the human person will be
enriched and perfected in the light of Christian teaching and correct moral
107. Nevertheless, clerics are not permitted to offer
their cooperation to film directors without the express consent of their
superiors, since, obviously, to give sound advice in this matter, special
competence and extraordinary training are needed. Decisions in these matters
cannot be left to the whim of individuals.
108. We therefore, with a
father's interest, admonish Catholic directors and producers not to permit
films to be made which are opposed to the faith or Christian morals. But
if—which God forbid—this should happen, it is the duty of the bishops to
admonish them and, if necessary, to impose appropriate sanctions.
But we are convinced that, to bring motion pictures to their highest and most
perfect form, nothing is more effective than that those who produce motion
pictures conform to the precepts of the Christian law.
responsible for making films should approach the sources from which flow all
the highest gifts. They should master the Gospel teaching, and make themselves
familiar with the Church's traditional doctrine on the certainties of life, on
happiness and virtue, on sorrow and sin, on body and soul, on social problems
and human desires. They will obtain new and excellent plots which they may
adopt, and they will feel themselves inspired by a fresh enthusiasm to produce
works of lasting value.
111. Those undertakings and practices,
therefore, must be encouraged and extended by which the spiritual life is
nourished, strengthened, and developed. But particular attention must be paid
to the Christian training of those young people who are planning to enter the
world of motion pictures professionally.
112. To conclude these
instructions on motion pictures, We urge government officials not to lend
support, on any account, to the production or distribution of films of low
caliber, but to lay down suitable regulations to help provide decent,
commendable motion pictures (particularly when they are intended for youth).
113. Since such large sums are being spent on public education, public
authorities should also direct their attention to giving reasonable assistance
in this matter, which is essentially a part of education.
since in certain countries, and at international festivals, prizes are
established and awarded to those films which are commended for their educative
and spiritual value, We trust that all good and prudent men will follow Our
counsels and strive to ensure that the applause and approval of the general
public will be bestowed as a prize upon really worthwhile films.
No less carefully do We desire to express to you, Venerable Brethren, the
anxiety that besets Us with regard to that other means of communication which
was introduced during the same period as motion pictures. We refer to radio.
116. Although radio does not have the scenic and other visual
advantages of motion pictures, still it has other advantages which have not
been fully exploited as yet.
117. "For," as We once said to the
members and directors of a broadcasting company, "this method of communication
is such that it is, as it were, detached from and unrestricted by conditions
of place and time which block or delay all other methods of communication
between men. On winged flight, swifter than sound waves, it passes with the
speed of light over all frontiers and delivers the news committed to it."
118. Brought to almost complete perfection by recent inventions,
wireless telegraphy brings outstanding advantages to technical processes; by
means of a radio beam pilotless machines may even be directed to determined
places. Yet We think that the most excellent function that falls to radio is
this: to enlighten and instruct men; to direct their minds and hearts to
higher and spiritual things.
119. There is in men, even though they
may be in their own homes, a deep desire to hear other men, to learn of events
happening far away, and to share in social and cultural life. Hence it is not
strange that a large number of homes have, within a short time, been equipped
with receiving sets by which, as through secret windows opening on the world,
contact is made by night and by day with the daily lives of men of other
cultures, languages, and races.
120. This is brought about by the
countless radio programs which present news, interviews, lectures, and things
that are both useful and entertaining, such as singing and orchestral music.
121. For as We said not long ago, "today men enjoy great advantages
and bear great responsibilities. There have been great changes from the days
when instruction in truth, in the commandments of brotherly love, in the
promises of everlasting happiness came slowly to men through apostles who trod
rough paths in that past age. In our day the divine message can be conveyed to
tens and hundreds of thousands of men at one and the same time.
122. It is fitting then that Christians should use this benefit
conferred upon our age, and enrich themselves with what comes over the air
waves that pertains to learning, recreation, art, and the divine word itself,
since thus they are able to increase their knowledge and expand, as it were,
the frontiers of their spirit.
123. Everyone knows what a great
contribution good radio programs can make to sound education. Yet from the use
of radio, as with other means of communication, there arises an obligation in
conscience since it can be employed for good or evil.
124. Those words
which are written in Scripture can be applied to radio: "With it we bless God
the Father; and with it we curse men, who are made after the likeness of God.
Out of the same mouth proceed blessing and cursing."
who listen to the radio are duty bound to discriminate carefully and
intelligently among the various programs, which should not be allowed to enter
the house pell-mell, but should be given the same thoughtful and prudent
invitation that you would extend to a friend. It would be wrong to admit
acquaintances indiscriminately into your house. So too, the radio programs you
admit should be such as encourage truth and goodness and will not distract
members of the family from the fulfillment of their duties to individuals or
society. They should, rather, give them strength to carry out these
obligations properly, and, in the case of children and youths, they should
work no harm, but assist and further the sound training being given by
teachers and parents.
126. Catholic offices for radio should be set up
in each country and, through Catholic newspapers and reviews, should endeavor
to inform the faithful beforehand on the nature and value of the programs. Of
course, it will not always be possible to give such advance notice; often
these will only be summary views where the content of the program cannot be
known easily in advance.
127. Parish priests should warn their flocks
that they are forbidden by divine law to listen to radio programs which are
dangerous to their faith or morals. They should exhort those engaged in the
training of youth to be on the watch and to instill religious principles with
regard to the use of radio sets installed in the home.
it is the duty of the bishops to call on the faithful to refrain from
listening to stations which defend matters formally opposed to the Catholic
129. Another duty which binds listeners is to make known to the
directors of the programs their wishes and justifiable criticism. This
obligation arises clearly from the nature of radio, which is such that a
wholly one-sided point of view is conveyed by the speaker to the listener.
130. Various systems of surveying public opinion are popular today for
determining the degree of interest aroused in the listeners by each program,
and are doubtless useful to those who direct the programs; but more or less
vigorously expressed popular appreciation can sometimes be attributed to
trivial or transient causes, or to enthusiasms with no rational basis, so that
a judgment of this kind cannot be taken as a sure guide for action.
131. That being the case, radio listeners ought to rouse themselves to
create a well-balanced public opinion by which, while observing proper
methods, these programs may be approved, supported, or rebuked, according to
their merits, thus bringing it about that radio, considered as a method of
education, "may serve the truth, good morals, justice, and love."
132. To produce this result is the task of all Catholic organizations
which are zealous for securing the good of Christians in this matter. But in
those countries where local circumstances suggest it, groups of listeners or
viewers can be organized for this purpose under the supervision of the
national motion-picture, radio, and television offices established in each
133. Finally, let listeners to the radio be aware that they
are obliged to encourage reputable programs, and particularly those by which
the mind is directed toward God. In this age in particular when false and
pernicious doctrines are being spread over the air; when, by deliberate
"jamming," a kind of aerial "iron curtain" is being created with the express
purpose of preventing the entry of truth which would overthrow the empire of
atheistic materialism—in this age, we say, when hundreds of thousands of the
human race are still looking for the dawning light of the Gospel message, when
the sick and handicapped look forward anxiously to taking part in some manner
in the prayers and the ceremonies of the Mass of the Christian community,
should not the faithful, especially those who make daily use of the advantages
of the radio, show themselves eager to encourage programs of this kind?
134. We are fully aware of the effort that has been and is being made
in some countries to increase the number of Catholic programs. Many, from
among both clergy and laity, have been in the front of the fight, and by
vigorous exertions have secured for religious radio programs a place befitting
divine worship which is more important than all human affairs taken together.
135. But in the meantime, while we ponder the extent to which radio
can assist the work of the sacred ministry, and while We are moved strongly by
the command of our divine Redeemer, "Going into the whole world, preach the
gospel to every creature," We feel We must exhort you paternally,
Venerable Brethren, to strive—according to the needs and resources of your
respective localities—to increase in number, and make more effective, programs
dealing with Catholic affairs.
136. Since a properly dignified radio
presentation of liturgical ceremonies, of the truths of the Catholic faith,
and of events connected with the Church, obviously demands considerable talent
and skill, it is essential that both priests and laymen who are selected for
this important activity should be well trained in suitable methods. This end
would clearly be assisted if, in countries where Catholics employ the latest
radio equipment and have day-to-day experience, appropriate study and training
courses could be arranged by means of which students from other countries
could acquire that skill which is indispensable if religious radio programs
are to attain the best artistic and technical standards.
137. It will
be the function of the national offices to encourage the various types of
religious programs within their territory and to organize and coordinate them
with each other. They will, in addition, offer their cooperation as far as
possible to the directors of the other radio stations, due care being observed
that nothing creeps into these programs that is contrary to sound morals.
138. With regard to priests, including exempt religious, who are
engaged in radio or television work, it will be the bishops' duty to impart
suitable directives, the carrying out of which will he committed to the
various national offices.
139. We should like particularly to speak
words of encouragement to those who manage Catholic radio stations. We are
fully aware of the almost countless difficulties which have to be faced in
this sphere, and yet We trust that this apostolic work which we value so
highly, will be pursued with energy and with mutual cooperation.
For Our part, We have arranged for the expansion and improvement of the
Vatican radio station which has done excellent work for the Church. This
station's salutary activity, as We declared to the Catholics of Holland, who
contributed to it so generously, has responded well to "the ardent desires and
the vital needs of the whole Catholic world."
141. Moreover, We
desire to extend Our thanks to all upright directors and producers of radio
programs for their fair assessment of the needs of the Church, to which many
of them have borne testimony either by freely assigning suitable time for the
spread of God's word, or by supplying the necessary equipment.
Those who act in this way certainly share in the special reward of apostolic
work—even though it is being carried out over the air—according to our Lord's
promise: "He who receives a prophet because he is a prophet, shall receive a
143. In these days, technical excellence in
radio programs requires that they conform to true principles of art; hence
authors and those engaged in preparing and producing them must be supplied
with the riches of sound doctrine. And so, we earnestly invite them also, as
We did the members of the motion-picture industry, to make full use of that
superabundance of material in the storehouse of Christian civilization.
144. Finally, the bishops should remind government officials that it
is part of their duty to exercise appropriate diligence in safeguarding the
transmission of programs relating to the Catholic Church, with special
consideration to holy days and to the daily spiritual needs of Christians.
145. It remains, Venerable Brethren, to speak briefly to you about
television, which in the course of Our Pontificate has taken tremendous steps
forward in some nations and is gradually coming into use in others.
146. The growing development of this means of communication, which
beyond all doubt is an event of great importance in human history, has been
followed by Us with lively interest and high hopes, but also with serious
anxiety. While We have from the beginning praised its potentialities for good
and the new advantages springing therefrom, we have also foreseen and pointed
out the dangers latent in it and the excesses of those who misuse it.
147. There are many characteristics common to both, television and
motions pictures for, in both, pictures of the movement and the excitement of
life are presented to the eye. Often, too, motion-picture films supply
television with its material. But, television also shares, in a sense, the
nature and influence of radio broadcasting, for it is directed to men in their
own homes rather than in theaters.
148. We consider it superfluous to
repeat here the warnings We have already given, with regard to motion pictures
and radio programs, concerning the obligations binding in this matter on
spectators, listeners, producers, and public officials. Nor need We again
refer to the care and diligence which must be observed in the correct
preparation and encouragement of the various types of religious programs.
149. We are aware of the deep interest with which great numbers of
spectators watch television presentations of Catholic events. It is obvious,
of course—as We declared a few years ago — that to watch a Mass on
television is not the same as being actually present at the Divine sacrifice,
as is required on Sundays and holy days.
150. However, religious
ceremonies seen on television contribute greatly to strengthening the faith
and renewing the fervor of all those who, for some reason, cannot be actually
present. Consequently, We are convinced that We may wholeheartedly commend
programs of this kind.
151. In each country it will be for the bishops
to judge the suitability of televised religious programs, and to entrust their
execution to the established office, which, of course, as in similar matters,
will be active and alert in publishing information, instructing the minds of
the audience, and organizing and coordinating everything in a manner in
keeping with Christian morals.
152. But television—besides the common
element which it shares with the other two means of spreading information
about which We have already spoken—has a power and efficacy of its own.
153. By television it is possible for spectators to grasp, by the eye
and the ear, events happening far away at the very moment at which they are
taking place and thus to be drawn on, as it were, to take an active part in
them. This sense of immediacy is increased very much by the home surroundings.
154. This special power which television enjoys, that of giving
pleasure within the family circle, is very important, since it can contribute
a great deal to the religious life, the intellectual development, and the
habits of those who make up the family—of the children, especially, whom the
more modern invention will certainly influence and captivate.
if that saying, "a little leaven ferments the whole mass" is a full
expression of the truth, and if the physical growth of youths can be prevented
by some infectious germ from reaching full maturity, much more easily can some
base ingredient of education steal its way into the sinews of religious life
and check the proper development of morals.
156. Everyone knows well
that children can often avoid an epidemic so long as the disease is outside
their own home, but cannot escape it when it lurks within the home itself. It
is an evil thing to bring the sanctity of the home into danger. The Church,
therefore, as her right and duty demand, has always striven with all her
resources to prevent these sacred portals suffering violence, under any
pretext, from evil television shows.
157. It is one of television's
advantages that it induces both old and young to remain at home; it can have,
as a result, considerable influence in strengthening the bonds of loyalty and
love within the family circle, provided the screen displays nothing which is
contrary to those same virtues of loyalty and chaste love.
are however, some who completely deny that, at least at the present time,
these lofty demands can be put into practice. They repeatedly assert that the
contract made with their spectators in no way permits any part of the time
allotted to television to be left unoccupied, that the necessity of always
having a variety of programs on hand forces them sometimes to put on shows
which were originally intended only for the public theater, and finally, that
television is an affair not just for the young but for adults as well.
159. We admit that difficulties readily occur in this matter, but
their solution should not be postponed to some future date, since the use of
television, when it is not controlled by the reins of prior prudent counsel,
has already inflicted serious harm on individuals and on human society. The
extent of this damage up to the present time can be gauged only with
160. But in order that the solution of these difficulties
may advance side by side with the increasing use of television in each
country, the most urgent efforts should be devoted to the preparation of the
various shows, ensuring that they correspond to ethical and psychological
requirements as well as to the technical aspects of television.
For this reason We paternally exhort Catholics qualified by their learning,
sound doctrine, and knowledge of the arts—and, in particular, clerics and
members of Religious Orders and Congregations—to turn their attention to this
new art and give their active cooperation, so that whatever advantages
tradition and true progress have contributed to the mind's development may be
also employed in full measure to the benefit of television.
addition, it is essential that producers of television films take care not
only to keep religious and moral principles inviolate, but also to guard
against the danger which the young may perhaps fall into if they are present
at shows intended for adults.
163. With regard to similar performances
in motion pictures or on the stage, appropriate precautions have been taken in
almost all civilized countries to keep young people away from immoral
entertainments. This has been done with the deliberate aim of preserving the
common good. But it is common knowledge that television also—and with greater
reason—needs the benefits and safeguards of alert vigilance. It is
praiseworthy that in some countries subjects forbidden to the young are
excluded from television programs; but if certain places admit such programs,
then definite precautions, at least, are absolutely essential. It is useless
for anyone to suppose that excellent principles and an upright conscience on
the part of those engaged in television are sufficient either to ensure that
nothing but good flows from the small white screen, or to remove all that is
164. In this matter, then, prudence and vigilant care are
especially demanded of those who use television. Due moderation in its use,
prudence in allowing children to watch it according to their different ages, a
balanced judgment based on what has been seen before, and finally exclusion of
children from what are in any sense improper spectacles: all these are duties
which weigh heavily on parents and on all engaged in education.
We do not overlook the fact that the directives We have given in the previous
section can sometimes produce serious difficulties and considerable
inconveniences. An awareness of their role as educators will often demand that
parents give clear example to their offspring and also bid them deny
themselves some programs they would like to see, even though this may entail
some personal sacrifice. But who will regard the burden on parents as too
heavy when the supreme good of the children is at stake?
being so—as We declared in a letter to the Italian bishops—"it is a most
pressing need that with regard to television the conscience of Catholics
should be formed by the sound principles of the Christian religion"; the
more so, in order that this means of communication may not be at the service
of error or the snares of vice, but may prove rather to be a help "in
educating and training men, and in recalling them to their higher state."
167. We cannot conclude this letter, Venerable Brethren, without
recalling to your mind the importance of the function committed to the priest
for encouraging and mastering the inventions which affect communication, not
only in other spheres of the apostolate, but especially in this essential work
of the Church. He ought to have a sound knowledge of all questions which
confront the souls of Christians with regard to motion pictures, radio, and
168. As We said in a discourse to those taking part in a
study week for bringing pastoral practice up to date in Italy at the present
time: "The priest entrusted with 'the care of souls' can and ought to know
whatever is offered by modern studies and developments in the arts and
technology insofar as these pertain to the supreme end of man and his moral
and religious life."
169. He should learn to use these aids
correctly as often as, in the prudent judgment of ecclesiastical authority,
the nature of the ministry entrusted to him and the need of assisting an
increasing number of souls demand it.
170. Finally, if these arts are
employed by the priest to advantage, his prudence, self-control, and sense of
responsibility will shine out as an example to all Christians.
decided to lay before you, Venerable Brethren, Our thoughts and anxieties,
which you of course also share, concerning the grave dangers which could beset
Christian faith and morals if the powerful inventions of motion pictures,
radio, and television were perverted by men to evil uses. We have not,
however, passed over the benefits and advantages which these modern
instruments can bring.
172. To this end, with the precepts of the
Christian faith and natural law to enlighten Us, We have explained the
principles which must guide and regulate both the activities of the directors
of these means of communication, and the conscience of those who use them.
173. And for the same reason, namely that the gifts of Divine
Providence may secure the good of souls, We have paternally exhorted you not
only to exercise a watchful care but also to use positive action and
174. For it is the function of those national offices,
which on this occasion also We have commended to you, not only to preserve and
defend but, more especially, to direct, organize, and assist the many
educational projects which have been begun in many countries, so that, in this
difficult and extensive province of the arts, Christian ideas may be ever more
175. But since We have firm confidence in the ultimate
triumph of God's cause, We do not doubt that these precepts and instructions
of Ours—which We entrust for due execution to the Pontifical Commission for
Motion Pictures, Radio and Television—can rouse new enthusiasm for the
apostolate in this sphere which promises such a plenteous and fruitful
176. Relying on this hope, which Our well funded knowledge of
your pastoral zeal very much strengthens, We impart with all Our heart, as a
pledge of heavenly graces, the Apostolic Benediction on you, Venerable
Brethren, as well as on the clergy and people committed to your care, and in
particular on those who work actively to bring Our desires and instructions to
177. From Saint Peter's, Rome, September 8, the feast of
Our Lady's Nativity, 1957, the 19th year of Our Pontificate.
BACK TO ENYCLICALS
- St. John Chrysostom, De Consubstantiali, contra Anomeos: PG 48. 810.
- Eph. 3. 8-9.
- I Pet. 1. 18-19.
- Radiomessage Qui arcano dei, February 1, 1931: Acta Apostolicae Sedis
23 (1931), p. 65.
- Encyclical Vigilanti cura, June 29, 1936: AAS, 28 (1936), pp. ff.
- Ibid., p. 251.
- Cf. AAS 46(1954), pp. 783-784.
- Cf. Address to Catholics of the Netherlands, May 19 1950: Discorsi
radiomessaggi, vol. 12, p. 75.
- Rom. 10. 16.
- Matt. 22. 16.
- Cf. Address to Italian motion picture group meeting in Rome, June 21,
1955: AAS 47 (1955), p. 504. [English tr.: TPS (Summer 1955) v. 2, no. 2, p.
- Cf. Matt. 11. 30.
- Cf Address to International Congress on High-Frequency Broadcasting at
Rome: Discorsi e radiomessaggi, vol. 12, p. 54.
- Rom. 5. 5
- Cf. Matt. 5. 48.
- Apostolic letter of January 12, 1951: AAS 44 (1952), pp. 216-217.
- Ibid. p. 216.
- Matt. 13. 27.
- Matt. 13. 28.
- I Thess. 5. 21-22.
- Cf. Address on occasion of fifth centenary of Fra Angelico, April 20,
1955: AAS 47 (1955), pp. 291-292 [English tr.: TPS (Summer 1955) vol. 2, no.
2, pp. 125 ff.] Cf. Encyclical letter Musicae sacrae, December 25, 1955:
AAS, vol. 48. (1956), p. 10.
- Cf. Rom. 11. 15.
- Address to Italian motion picture group, June 21, 1955: AAS 47 (1955),
p. 505. [English tr.: TPS (Summer 1955) v.2, no. 2, p. 101.—Ed.]
- St. Thomas, Summa Theologiae, 1, p. 1, a. 9.
- Ibid. q. 667, a. 1.
- Address to directors and employees of Italian Broadcasting System,
December 3, 1944: Discorsi vol. 6, p. 209.
- Address to group of United Nations public information officials, April
24, 1956: Discorsi vol. 18, p. 137.
- Cf. John, 8. 32.
- Cf. Radiomessage to the faithful of the Republic of Colombia, April 11,
1953, on inauguration of radio station at Sutatenza: AAS 45 (1953), p. 294.
- Encyclical epistle Vigilanti cura, June 29, 1936: AAS 28 (1936),p.255.
- Ibid., p. 254.
- Exhortation on television January 1, 1954: AAS 46 (1954), p. 21.
[English tr.: TPS, v. 1, no. 1, p. 5.—Ed.]
- Address to delegates to meeting of Institute of Archeology, History, and
History of Art, March 9, 1956: AAS 48 (1956), p. 212. [English tr.: TPS
(Autumn 1956) v. 3, no. 2, p. 157.—Ed.l
- Encyclical epistle Vigilanti cura June 29, 1936: AAS 28 (1936),p.261.
- Cf. Address to motion picture industry workers, October 28, 1955: AAS 47
(1955), p. 817. [English tr.: TPS (Summer 1955) v. 2, no. 2, p. 101.—Ed.]
- Address to motion picture industry workers of Italy, June 21, 1955: AAS
47 (1955), pp. 501-502. [English tr.: TPS (Winter 1955-56) v. 2, no. 4, p.
- Cf. Addresses of June 21 and October 28, 1955: ibid. pp. 502-505;,
- Encyclical epistle Vigilanti cura, June 29, 1936: AAS 28
- Cf. Address to Italian motion picture workers, June 21, 1955: AAS 47
(1955), p. 512. [English tr.: TPS (Summer 1955) v. 2, no. 2, p. 101.—Ed.]
- Encyclical epistle Vigilanti cura June 29, 1936: AAS 28 (1936),p.260.
- Cf. Address of Pope Pius XII to Roman Lenten preachers, March 5, 1957:
L'Osservatore Romano, March 6, 1957. [English tr.: TPS (Summer 1957) v. 4,
no. 1, p. 69.—Ed.]
- Cf. Address on pictorial art, August 26, 1945: Discorsi, vol.7,p.157.
- Cf. Letter of Pope Pius XII to the faithful of Germany on the occasion
of the Katholikentag, August 10, 1952: AAS 44(1952),p.725.
- Cf. Address given on December 3, 1944: Discorsi, vol. 6, p. 209.
- Cf. Radiomessage to participants in third general meeting for
communications between peoples and nations, during the 60th anniversary year
of the invention of the radiotelegraph, at Genoa: AAS 47 (1955), p. 736.
[English tr.: TPS (Winter 1955-56) v. 2, no. 4, p. 365.—Ed.]
- James 3. 9-10.
- Cf. Address of Pope Pius XII on October 3, 1947, on the occasion of the
50th anniversary of the invention of the radiophonic arts: Discorsi, vol. 9,
- Mark 16. 15.
- Cf. Address to Dutch Catholics, May 19, 1950: Discorsi, vol. 12, p. 75.
- Matt. 10. 41.
- Cf. Address to international radio-workers' meeting, May 5, 1950:
Discorsi, vol. 12, p. 55.
- Gal. 5. 9.
- Cf. Apostolic exhortation concerning television, January 1, 1954: AAS 46
(1954), p. 23. [English tr.: TPS, v. 1, no. 1, p. 5.—Ed.]
- Cf. Address on the importance of television, October 21, 1955: AAS 47
(1955), p. 777. [English tr.: TPS (Winter 1955-56) v. 2, no. 4, p. 368.—Ed.]
- Cf. Address of September 14, 1956: AAS 48 (1956), p. 707. [English tr.:
TPS (Spring 1957) v. 3, no. 4, p. 381.—Ed.]